All of these characters are called to Othon's home to watch a last-resort experiment of Dr. Castel's new serum on the boy. Learn how the author incorporated them and why. Plague offered crucial questions that had to be answered. 79 likes. This isn't the desire of a recluse but of a man who needs a time-out. Into it, however, can be read all Camus's native anxieties, centred on the idea of plague as a symbol.' So far, we know hardly anything. But troop trains are full of drafted soldiers following orders and taking no pleasure in war. The Fall by Camus explores the theme of guilt: the thesis of this philosophical novel in one sentence: we are all responsible for everything. In August, tensions edge up a notch, since the plague is moving from the crowded outskirts to the center of town. He theorizes that he cannot contract the plague because he carries his own death sentence and men never die of two illnesses. Just as the populace looked for logic in the Church, in horoscopes, and superstitions, Richard (and the townspeople, we may assume, had he been allowed to inform them) hopes that an equation can be assumed concerning the plague's progress. Because Tarrou aids Rieux, he is often confused with the doctor. We should be aware of the nurture period for this change in the man. Study Questions from SparkNotes. Nor has he evolved a finished philosophy concerning his actions during the plague. Next. Rather than giving in to a false sense of security, we should always be on watch for another wave. The Gestapo also captured a great number of activists and “turned” them into informants, often under severe torture. When Raymond Rambert, a journalist working for a Paris daily, asks Rieux about the living conditions among the Arab population of the city, the doctor declines to comment, knowing full well that Rambert couldn’t publish the unqualified truth about it anyway. Winter has not yet arrived to hopefully freeze the plague germs. I know only human beings.” Although Camus never explicitly said so, he was likely inspired by their humanity – tellingly, the village doctor in Chambon was a man named Rioux. What more could they ask for? Select the sections that are relevant to you. But this is how the plague began — against all the rules. Even a greater incongruity, however, than the raincoat costumes in the plague city is the lack of men and women carrying flowers to the cemeteries. Both have enlisted as plague fighters, but Rambert's offer was not quite a wholehearted pledge and Paneloux's decision came from Christian duty, not from a love for man or from a crusading spirit of Good versus Evil; his faith is tried in a later chapter. Still summarizing, Rieux notes the profiteering based on, in addition to raincoats, food supplies. Despondency naturally begins to give way to envy and protests. Yet after a furious ideological row over his essay collection L’Homme Révolté (The Rebel) in 1951, their paths split for good and Camus’ fame declined. Tarrou visits the stadium with Rambert and Gonzales, two former football players, and the contrasts between the past and the present are more evident because of the presence of these men. Tarrou's sympathy for the defendant was very much like that which Camus felt for a boatload of prisoners he saw in the Algerian port in 1938. Isolated riots are breaking out, and a special brigade shoots cats and dogs as possible carriers of the disease. The concierge M. Michel flat out denies that there could be rats in the building. Rieux, meanwhile, walks alone through the celebrating crowds to the outskirts of town, seeing couples passionately embracing each other and their joy. The symbol is that of the German occupation of France against which Camus fought so heroically during the war. There too either a priest approved of the gross agony of death he saw as a part of God's good or else he denied everything. It had been ousted from civilized countries and had no reason for attacking Oran. He cannot say whether or not the plague is more fierce than it was yesterday; he can only measure his own competence, and the result is negative. Tarrou approves of the extreme position which Paneloux has taken for himself. Of all Camus’ novels, none described man’s confrontation – and cohabitation – with death so vividly and on such an epic scale as La Peste, translated as The Plague. The men in the stadium now do nothing and they are silent. enjoys a sensual life and it is important to realize that Rieux understands this desire. His faith in divine vengeance is worn thin by the time he witnesses the death of M. Othon's child. For the first time, he belongs; he has a niche in the human condition. The only improvement seems to be the clean shine of the cold air. Also in this chapter is more necessary background information about Tarrou. Both men begin to feel that their revolts are becoming obsolete. Camus believed that the only way to confront the absurdity and pointlessness of life was to rebel against it and create meaning through action. Rieux notes this fresh quality at the beginning of Chapter 24 and remembers the old Spaniard remarking about its pleasant coolness. M. Othon, the judge, asks to be sent back to the quarantine camp. He can only believe that God has a reason that is unfathomable but that there exists a holy logic that must be trusted. Staring at the setting sun he seems resigned, lost, and asking for kind favors. Geared to what today's students need to know, SparkNotes … Tarrou pities him; Othon is a judge and should have a measure of objectivity, but he has proven to be as vulnerable as anyone else. The narrator reveals several unexpected reactions of his own — unexpected because he is usually reticent about his personal life and unexpected because they are confessions of his feelings of loss. The Plague, which propelled Camus into international celebrity, is both an allegory of World War II and a … The hospital is described as being pale green inside and the light as being like that of an aquarium. Castel survives, but with efficient irony the plague disposes of Richard, the optimistic doctor. Customers who bought this item also bought. The main characters of this fiction, classics story are Raoul, Dr Bernard Rieux. As a contrast, Cottard, from Tarrou's notebook sketches, is presented, still happy and smiling. They can hear the sounds of life beyond the walls and, like Rambert, they have devised so many plans for escape. Castel starts to develop a vaccine based on the local variety of the plague bacillus, Grand acts as a general secretary to the squads, keeping the statistics of the disease, and even Father Paneloux ends up joining the effort. A sense of humor, objectivity, and responsibility are all tested and proven during his illness. The primary difference is the present lack of activity. La Peste = The Plague, Albert Camus The Plague is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of a plague sweeping the French Algerian city of Oran. His congregation had generally decided in favor of prophecies, numerology, and speculative charms. Title: Camus ~ The Plague (1947) 1 Camus The Plague (1947) The plague strikes Oran ; Setting is in the 1940s in Oran, a French port on the Algerian coast ; Oran is an ordinary, ugly, commercially-oriented place with an absurd lay-out (ML 23 VI 24). Doctors, by issuing medicine and performing surgery interrupt God's processes, a heresy. Even the actor portraying Orpheus catches the rhythms of his surroundings and improvises an extreme grotesqueness for his final position of defeat. Camus described his feelings in an editorial, saying that endless imprisonment was tantamount to death; thus he was grieved and felt that somehow it was as unjust to damn human beings for the rest of their lives as it was to take their lives as payment for crimes committed. Journalists, as Rieux has noted, continue to defraud the public of truth. And he resolved to abdicate any cause that claimed human lives in some bogus pursuit of justice. Still, to him it has proven that, when all is said and done, there are more reasons to admire his fellow human beings than to despise them. He realized that he’d had the plague all along. His daughter Catherine Camus, when asked about the book’s newfound popularity, said that its core message was now more pressing than ever: “We are not responsible for the coronavirus, but we can be responsible in the way we respond to it.”. Still, some took the stance of “refus absurde” (Jean Cassou) – refusing to accept the inevitable. The Myth of Sisyphus (Penguin Great Ideas) Albert Camus. 1 Sounds of traditional Arab music, followed by crowd rejoicing and cheering. Tarrou: A Bold Character The audience believes that Dr. Rieux is unchanging in his beliefs and perceptions and this could very well be true. When a bedraggled looking dog comes out onto the street – the first Rieux has seen in months – he shoots the poor animal, too. That night people go out celebrating in the streets. This chapter re-humanizes Rieux; he feels a lump in his throat as he stares at the collapsed sleeping position of his colleague, Dr. Castel. When coffins start running out, the corpses are flung into death pits and covered with layers of quicklime. It has forced Grand to reconsider his entire past, particularly his lost marriage and the values of his present daily living; it has tested Dr. Rieux's belief and devotion to his job of keeping Oran alive and it has also revealed his human failings. Rieux, following his conscience, cannot; he must act regardless of accidental blunders. But two characters have yet to be fully tested: Rambert and Paneloux. Albert Camus, inspired by historical accounts of plague outbreaks and his experience during the Resistance in Nazi-occupied France, answered that timeless question in The Plague: Get up and do something useful together! He simply acted. There seems even to be a more satisfying act performed by Rieux and Tarrou than merely "getting away." Although Rambert still retains some hope of escape, there are hints in the chapter that foreshadow his decision to stay. The Rebel is a book by French writer and philosopher Albert Camus. Despair sets in along with the merciless summer heat. The next day a health committee convenes. He also has a clever logic rationalizing his own immunity. In 1942, he went to the small French mountain village Le Panelier, in order to cure one of his recurring bouts of tuberculosis. Similar cases of fever and inflamed lymph nodes start multiplying at a worrying clip across town. Grand shows all the symptoms of plague, but against the doctor’s expectations he recovers. Rieux has so successfully convinced us of his physical and mental strength, neglecting his personal complaints, that he sometimes loses a sense of human individuality. Chinks begin to appear, metaphorically. Grand's surviving the plague's ravishes is much like a rebirth. The church offered little understanding and hope for their plight. The lethargy refuses to lift itself from Oran. This particular plague happens in a Algerian port town called Oran in the 1940s. Beauty, after being charred by the summer, surrounds the city of pestilence. Rieux and his mother decide to skirt the rules, let him stay at their house and keep vigil until the end. If the serum is not effective, it is possible that plague will prove to be the victor. Rambert is standing looking front with a 1940s-style microphone in his hand. But one day he visited his father in court, and that day changed his life: Tarrou became an ardent opponent of capital punishment. Winter approaches but the plague does not abate. Eventually, though, the number of dead exceeds the capacity of the cemetery, so they utilize the old crematorium outside the gates, east of the town, employing an unused streetcar line to transport the dead to their final burning place. Albert Camus THE PLAGUE - Antilogicalism [PDF] The Plague Book by Albert Camus Free Download (308 ... Amazon.com: The Plague (Audible Audio Edition): Albert ... SparkNotes: The Plague: Study Guide The Plague, or La Peste in its original French, is a novel written by philosopher/writer Albert Camus in 1947. The clerk does have a potential for a life beyond the boundaries of statistics and graphs. The quiet night is indeed satisfying, but not absolutely so. Camus was a cautiously optimistic humanist and moralist: He believed that, for all their colossal failings, people are inherently decent – when given a chance. Albert Camus's The Plague Chapter Summary. Rieux clarifies another misfortune of the lethargic state — the slackening of Tarrou's medical crews. Confrontation with such extreme disaster might strike down a man with alert senses and sentiment. Another former patient, the modest and underpaid municipal clerk Joseph Grand, calls him because of his neighbor’s failed suicide attempt: Cottard has rather ambivalently tried to hang himself. Rieux, being the narrator-doctor, might likely have sat at a bedside and early initiated us to the cries and contortions of suffering. The hospital ward is filling up, so that the authorities are constrained to requisition a school to open an auxiliary hospital. Remembrance of death is no longer a once-a-year day. However, fearing an eventual left-wing revolutionary takeover, he carefully kept the Communists at arms’ length and orchestrated the liberation of Paris in August 1944 to take sole credit for it. For Dr. Rieux, that’s not a question of heroism, but simply of “doing my job”. What does it feel like to be suddenly cut off from nature and the world, beleaguered by an invisible bacillus and condemned to endless apathy? Paperback. It asks a number of questions relating to the nature of destiny and the human condition. Today he is acknowledged as one of the most important postwar French intellectuals, but during his lifetime he suffered from low self-esteem, depression and anxiety attacks, conditions that got worse when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. The book was published in 1947 and is considered one of the most important works by Camus. At almost 44 he was the second-youngest author ever to receive the award, and the pressure to perform weighed on him. A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis … The boy's parents accept Rieux's diagnoses with quiet terror and acquiescence. But then the journalist visits the overworked Tarrou and Rieux in the plague ward and tells them that he decided to stay: Leaving his friends alone now would be cowardly, and as a coward he won’t be able to look his lover in the eyes. The universe is not always blatantly superior; it too has its moods and imperfections. After three dramatic chapters, Chapter 23 begins quietly on All Souls' Day, November 1. On the fourth day, the beasts come out in packs and city officials give orders to collect and burn them in the incinerator. And, like an older member of the community, he most enjoys hobnobbing with the younger set, walking at night, joining the flow of the crowds into theaters and coffeehouses. The image Rieux uses during the suspense of Rambert's decision-making is that of a caged animal — not a particularly original image, but excellent for his purpose. From now on small notices go up in inconspicuous parts of town, asking citizens to follow decent hygiene rules as well as to report the occurrence of fleas and unusual fevers to the authorities. The Plague by Albert Camus Sunday, October 28, 2012. Some people believe that they keep a cleaner house than anyone else on the block, others can hold their liquor better, and still others believe that they can appreciate a musical performance more sensitively than anyone else in the audience. On the surface, The Plague is a realistic description of how society reacts to a deadly epidemic: Starting with the authorities’ inevitable denial and followed by hastily convened containment measures, panic buying, shameless profiteering and public discontent, the disease also brings out the very best in people, leading to extraordinary acts of human kindness and solidarity. At 20, he married a young bourgeois woman addicted to morphine, but the marriage failed miserably. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. It is a fallacy to see the doctor as a valiant, asexual knight in surgeon's clothing. Tarrou's sympathy for the defendant was very much like that which Camus felt for a boatload of prisoners he saw in the Algerian port in 1938. No longer do they take personal precautions of hygiene and vaccination; their sense of self-preservation is slipping away. Hospitals are usually places of rest where one recovers his strength. Now it is filled with people sparring for life. Man must approve of God's will and make it his own. Father Paneloux A priest in Oran.. Raymond Rambert A Paris journalist trapped in Oran.. Joseph Grand A petty official, also a writer.. Cottard A criminal who hides from arrest in Oran.. M. Michel A concierge, the plague's first victim. The townspeople are disgusted and alarmed. Learn and understand all of the themes found in The Plague, such as Human Suffering. It was not long after his "sin = punishment" sermon that the priest became a diligent member of Tarrou's plague fighters. At first, few heeded his call – the majority were convinced that Germany would win the war, and they supported Pétain’s authoritarian and anti-Semitic regime. The shouting football activity is gone. But a few days later Tarrou comes down with the disease. Like all pestilences, the plague eventually runs its course. His angry lash at Paneloux, the irritation of doubts about his wife's recovery — all these he diagnoses as danger signs. “What makes my books a success is the same that makes them a lie for me.” A number of reviewers agreed, criticizing it as grey, heavy and dull. He asks for complete belief in God or else a complete denial of God, an All or Nothing proposition. Rambert. Between his day job as an editor at Gallimard and his underground activities, he struggled to finish the novel. In that same audience may be a woman who knows that she is wearing the most expensive diamonds there. As he searches for the child's pulse, he feels an instinctive empathy attempting to pour his own strength into the boy; he aches to scream in protest against such vile injustice. Previously the city has been indiscriminately attacked. Either it is matter of fact or else mentioned in passing. The decision, however, to be valuable has to be Rambert's own. The notebook passages concerning one of the isolation camps has an interesting twist. His animal-like qualities include the importance of sex to him. The hobby of Tarrou's father, insignificant and seeming strange to others, is definitive. He often intersperses his sober narration with quotes from a diary written by Tarrou, thus introducing another detached perspective to underline the unbiased nature of the account. Created by SparkNotes. A staunch anti-Stalinist and opponent of capital punishment, he maintained that no end, however glorious, ever justified unethical means to achieve it. In 1941, armed resistance began, with many young Frenchmen joining in disgust: One of their motives was the much-hated “horizontal collaboration,” a euphemism for sexual relationships between German men and French women desperate to feed themselves and their families. Yet for every German killed, about 50 to 100 French hostages were executed in retaliation. His bare chest is described as glistening with sweat, like polished wood, as he paces. Strangely, the symptoms are not ordinary. Cottard’s shady business partners get back to Rambert and tell him that this time they have organized his escape for good. The stadium is used as an isolation camp because it is large enough to accommodate the many quarantined family members. The Plague is a novel written by Albert Camus, an ultimately bleak story about a terrible illness that swept through an unprepared town. Tarrou's realization that even idealistic social revolutions shoot down the old order hardened his resolve never to harm another human being. Having grown up in a narrow world of limited words, he relished the intellectual universe that opened up before him. There are shootouts at the gates, and some people escape. The townspeople are confused and Rieux notes the reduced audience for Paneloux's sermon to the men. His mother, who was half-deaf, worked as a cleaning woman. After this ghastly ordeal, Rieux turns to Father Paneloux in anger: How about this innocent child, did it also deserve to die? Around the same time the first living rats are seen in town again. Even Cottard, Tarrou notes, begins to toss off ironic comments. From the title, you know this book is about a plague. We have to defy the meaningless by creating meaning through action and resistance. One seeks salvation for man, one seeks a definition of man through action, the other quests for a godless sainthood for himself. Because he is no longer comfortable with his ready-made store of threats, he begins to question the basis of his faith. Tarrou's answer that he is less ambitious is exactly what Rieux said to Paneloux, after the priest had said that his goal was man's salvation. Then, plague breaks out and continues to worsen until it reaches its climax in part four. Here, behind barred windows, they are imprisoned within the hospital exactly as they are imprisoned within their city. They are a strange kind of trinity: Paneloux, Rieux, and Tarrou. The people seem to need an external order that is reassuring. Plague: One Scientist's Intrepid Search for the Truth about Human Retroviruses and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Autism, and Other Diseases. The theme of lovers separated is exact, current realism. Rieux's response to the evening is given more space here than the brief, ironic asides he has earlier slipped into his narrative. The locked-in townspeople become dull and passive; cars seem to be going around in circles, the port lies idle, and commerce dwindles. Afterward he meets the Spanish agents and, before leaving, returns to Rieux. 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